Category Archives: Refugees

Niger: December 2018 Chronology of Violent Incidents Related to Al-Qaeda affiliates Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal Muslimeen (JNIM), Boko Haram, Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP), and Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS)

By Rida Lyammouri,

January 16th, 2019


Key points for December 2018:

  • Nigerien government announced on 07 December 2018 the extension of State of emergency in Diffa Region three more months.
  • Reportedly, on 10 December 2018 militants cell discovered 15km from Birni N’Konni at Jima-Jima village, Sokoto Region on the borders with Nigeria. Local prefect pointed out this was an attempt to establish a coordination site to exchange information between different militants’ cells.
  • On 07 December the government declared State of emergency in Gotheye and Tillabéri departments, Tillabéri Region.
  • On 29 December 2018 JNIM released statement claiming the attack against police station of Tera, Tillabéri Region carried on 30 November 2018.
  • On 21 December 2018 and under the initiative of Mr. Mahamadou Bakabé, Diffa Region Governor, a meeting on the security situation extended to the administrative, customary, military and religious authorities in the presence of representatives of youth, women, and the media. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the very worrying security situation and the upsurge of attacks recently in addition the phenomenon of people kidnapping by suspected Boko Haram militants.
  • Important recommendations were formulated to deal with the situation, with particular emphasis on monitoring and the ability of the population to be resilient to the shock.
  • In December hundreds of schools have closed or suspended their courses in Tillabéri Region following threats from ISGS militants. These schools are mostly located near Ayorou and Abala on the borders with Mali, and Torodi on the borders with Burkina Faso.
  • French and Nigerien forces conducted air-ground joint operations near Tongo Tongo, Tillabéri Region. According to French defense ministry statement at least 15 suspected ISGS members killed while arms and ammunition seized.
  • Notable increase in acts of intimidation, ethnic related violence, and armed banditry in Tahoua and Tillabéri Region during month of December 2018 forced number of families to seek refuge in Ménaka, Mali.
  • In December 2018 important number of shops ransacked in villages in Diffa Region near Lake of Chad during incursions by suspected members of Boko Haram.

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Niger: Images of displaced population affected by recent Boko Haram violence.

By Rida Lyammouri

June 11, 2015

There are no words to describe what people displaced because of violence related to Boko Haram in SE Niger are going through. This humanitarian tragedy is caused by a group that claims to represent and defend Muslims in Nigeria and neighboring countries. Yet it is causing such harm to innocent people during the holy month of Ramadan. These displaced people are the true Muslims because despite violence and the heat, they are most likely observing the holy month of Ramadan. People are walking miles in 100+ degrees, including women, children, and elders. Access to water is limited and almost non-existent. Keep them in our thoughts during this holy month.

These images speak for themselves and thank you to International Rescue Committee (IRC), International Committee for Red Cross (ICRC), Medecin Sans Frontiere (MSF), OCHA (Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) Niger, UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), and others who shared these telling images with us through twitter.

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Updated: Rundown of Boko Haram attacks on Bosso, Yébi, Diffa region in last 2 weeks

By Rida Lyammouri

June 4th, 2016 (updated June 10th)

Consequences of recent increased violence in Diffa region by Boko Haram militants:

  • Until May 2016 many villages, including Bosso, were considered safe places to many refugees that fled violence in NE Nigeria, N. Cameroon, and Chad. However, already displaced population were forced to flee several location. For instance, in Yébi, Medecin Sans Frontriere (MSF) was managing a health post that provided assistance to people who had already been displaced—until it was destroyed May 19th attack.
  • From security standpoint, population fleeing villages have left a void and likely made it easier for Boko Haram militants to move easily without being detected and reported.
  • More than 200,000 displaced population settled in Diffa region fleeing Boko Haram violence in NE Nigeria and Niger itself. However Boko Haram recent attacks forced at least 50,000 to relocate to Diffa and even further to Zinder.
  • The Islamic State in West African Province (ISWAP) released statement on June 4th claiming June 3rd attack on Bosso military post, but not the attacks on civilians at Yébi. Here is a summary of the statement released by ISWAP: “With the help of God, Caliphate soldiers carried a large scale attack with different types of weapons on a military base in Bosso, southeastern Niger where Nigérien and Nigerian soldiers are based. Caliphate soldiers killed at least 35 and injured other 70 from both, Nigérien and Nigerian armies, also seized important amount of weapons before mujahideen safely returned to their base.”
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ISWAP claim of Bosso attack

On May 19th, at least six civilians killed and seven injured when Boko Haram carried an attack on Yébi village, 5km from Bosso, according to Niger’s Army. Reportedly, four of the victims were burned alive and two shot dead. Yébi was one of few villages in the area where local population remained but according to statement posted on Urgence Diffa Facebook page the entire village now is burned. The attack was conducted at night from 10:00pm until 02:30am. Statement also indicated that Nigérien military did not respond until in the morning where they pursued members of Boko Haram. Because of physical damage to the village it was believed that casualties are far more than what Nigérien Army reported. Statement estimated number of casualties to be 23 and expected to increase. Worse, while majority of people were able to flee and hide in the bushes near the village, victims could be mostly women, children, and elders that were unable to escape according to the statement. Numbers are difficult to confirm but what’s alarming is the ability of Boko Haram members to easily conduct such attacks on unprotected civilians and causing such damages.

On May 27th, Nigérien Army clashed with Boko Haram members at Bosso. The attack was launched by large number of Boko Haram members but Nigérien security forces successfully pushed them back. Reportedly, security forces killed around 12 Boko Haram members and seized important amount of equipment according to an army statement. Also three Nigérien soldiers lightly injured. According to a local, the assault started toward the end of the day by 5:30pm and ended around 8:00pm. 

On May 31st, Boko Haram again attacked village Yébi. Reportedly six civilians killed while number of the injured is unknown. Again, Boko Haram again carried the attack at night around 10:00pm and clashes with security forces of Niger lasted until 04:00am. Number of Boko Haram conducted the attack were reportedly around 40.

On June 3rd, Boko Haram launched even larger scale attack on Nigérien Army based in Bosso. Nigérien Defense Ministry stated that more than 100s of Boko Haram members participated in the attack. While reportedly 30 Nigérien and 2 Nigerian soldiers are killed, 67 other soldiers wounded (ISWAP claimed killing 35 and wounding 70), and there are no reported casualties among civilians. This is largely because most of the population have left the village and Bosso is more like a military base today. Boko Haram again launched the attack at night and captured the village of Bosso overnight. Larger Nigérien Army reinforcement arrived the following morning and managed to recapture the village after Boko Haram have already left. According to Aïr-Info Agadez quoting local sources, Boko Haram abandoned the village early in the morning with important amount of arms, tanks, and foodstuff. Same source also stated Boko Haram left with hostages after burning and ransacking public buildings. There are concerns about unknown number of soldiers missing while the faith of civilians fled the attack remains unknown.

This attack on Bosso came three days after Nigérien Defense Minister told BBC reporter that Boko Haram don’t have the capacity to attack security forces of Niger. True that since Boko Haram started conducting attacks in Niger in February 2015 mainly targeted civilians. However now the group demonstrated its ability to carry even more deadly attack on Niger security forces. Niger simply doesn’t have the resources to protect its borders against the spillover of violence not only from Nigeria, but also from Mali and Libya. Coming months are critical for Niger with increased pressure on violent extremist groups operating in Mali, Nigeria, and more importantly on the so-called Islamic State in Libya.

June 5-6, Boko Haram militants and Nigérien Army clashed in Bosso. Mayor told Reuters that Boko Haram seized control of the town while Nigérien government stated later in the day Niger forces were in total control of the village. Local source reported that clashes moved toward a nearby village, Toumour, west of Bosso, and local population is genuinely concerned. Aïr-Agadez posted on its Facebook page confirmed that Boko Haram militants occupy Toumour as well.

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Statement above by Air-Info Agadez claiming Boko Haram militants occupy Toumour, a village located west of Bosso on the way to Diffa.

June 9th:  Village Kablewa was reportedly attacked by armed men around 2am. Although there were no casualties or violence clashes, local witnesses said gunmen seized goods and foodstuff from local stores they robbed.

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Diffa city entrance. Source: Maghreb and Sahel Blog

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Most of displaced population settled in Diffa had to stay outdoors. Source: UNHCR 

Fulani Refugees at M’berra, Mauritania, Chased by Malian Army

By Rida Lyammouri

May 20th, 2016

After rising to prominence in early 2015 the Macina Liberation Front (MLF) became popular for executing civilians suspected to have collaborated with the Malian forces. The  MLF also repeatedly targeted Malian forces in central and southern Mali, especially in Mopti region. However the Malian Army mishandled the situation and responded by conducting acts of abuse against civilians from Fulani community. Human Rights Watch (HRW) report released in February 2016 highlighted number of these acts from both sides. The recent violence between Bambara and Fulani communities was inevitable. The following comments recorded in May 2015 by Fulani families and notables indicates the seriousness of the issue that was never addressed. While majority of observers and journalists attribute violence in central Mali to the MLF, this appears to be more like settling accounts between armed Fulani and Malian Army. [I will talk in detail about this in a different post]

Note: Transcription is a full translation word by word and not being modified. I do have the full video but I only included screenshots. The recording is about 4mn06s. I am aware recently screenshots from this video circulated on social media speculating an MLF video to come out. This video has nothing to do with the MLF, but more about extractions against civilians and tensions between Bambara and Fulani communities.

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Video title

Video Title: “Fulani Refugees at M’berra, Mauritania, Chased Out by Malian Army”

Fulani notable: “Malian State started something that could not be tolerated. The way they started treating Fulani people will have consequences against them. I am calling all Fulani community in Mali, from Kayes to Kidal. Either the state [Malian] will chase us, or we will achieve our goal. We invite all Fulani of Macina and Nampala to wake up, either we will chase the Malian Army out or they will eradicate us. We can’t understand that we have inherited this land from out ancestors so that the Malian government and France would occupy us. We all have to fight to the last of us standing. Either we win this fight or loose. The cohabitation of Fulani and Bambara communities has ended; they will reap what they sow [get what they deserve].”

Fulani woman: “It’s a conflict imposed by the Malian government that brought us here. Malian Army stole our goods, tortured and executed our men. The Army left us nothing, stole our jewelry, our money, etc. They have arrested me with a Marabout (Modibo Gualel). They [captives] have all been shot or tortured and beaten by rifles. These are marks [showing her hands] when they put handcuffs on me all the way to Nampala.”

“Before were Tuareg and Maures [Arabs], and now Fulani. They [Fulani] became a project for the Malian Army. They kill us, torture us, steal our goods, and poison our wells. What’s left? So they want to kill us as well as our animals, and leave with the rest.”


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